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Hindi Yetiştiriciliği
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İpek Böceği
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İpek Böceği Yetiştiriciliği
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İpek Böceklerinin Bakımı ve Beslenmesi
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Kaz Yetiştiriciliği
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Keçi Irkları
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Keçi Yetiştiriciliği
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Keçilerin Bakımı ve Beslenmesi
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Koyun Yetiştiriciliği
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Koyunlarda Bakım ve Beslenme
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Ördek Yetiştiriciliği
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Tavuk Yetiştiriciliği
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Sığır Yetiştiriciliği
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Sığır Irkları
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Sığırların Bakım ve Beslenmesi
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Buzağı Bakımı ve Beslenmesi
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Sığır Barınakları
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Kültür Balıkçılığı
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Deniz Balıkçılığı
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Tatlı Su Balıkçılığı
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Kabuklu ve Yumuşakçalar
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Arı
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Arı Yetiştiriciliği
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Arıların Bakım ve Beslenmesi
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Arı Kovanları ve Özellikleri
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Manda Yetiştiriciliği
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Anadolu'da Simental Yetiştiriciliği
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Karlı Sığır Besiciliği Nasıl Olmalıdır
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Koyun Yetiştiriciliği
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63

Koyun; etinden, sütünden, derisinden, yapağısından ve gübrelerinden yararlanılan, geviş getiren, memeli hayvanlardır. Koyunların damızlık erkeklerine koç, henüz erginleşmemiş yavrularına da kuzu adı verilir. Özellikle dağlık kesimlerde, bozkırlarda sürü halinde yaşarlar. Dünyanın hemen hemen her bölgesinde evcil ve yabani olarak yetiştirilir. Yılda iki kez doğum yaparlar. Gebelik süreleri 5-11 aydır. Ortalama ömürleri 10-12 yıldır.

Türkiye'de koyunculuk; iklim koşulları, meraları ve özellikle ekonomik imkanları sebebiyle fazlasıyla elverişlidir. Doğu Anadolu Bölgesinin doğusu ve Doğu Karadenizin kıyı kesimleri hariç Türkiye'nin hemen hemen her bölgesinde yaygın olarak yapılmaktadır. Ancak son yıllarda hemen hemen tüm bölgelerimizde küçük baş hayvan varlığımız azalmaktadır.

Türkiye'de koyun varlığının tamamına yakınını düşük verimli yerli soylar oluşturur. Diğerleri ise merinos, merinos melezleri ve az sayıda öbür kültür soylarının melezleridir. Her türlü iklim şartlarına uyum sağlamaları ve yetersiz beslenme koşullarına dayanmaları nedeniyle düşük verimli yerli soylar yetiştiricilerin öncelikli tercihleri arasındadır. Ülkemizde bu sebeple yerli ırkların korunması ve geliştirilmesi yönünde çalışmalar yapılmakta, yerli ırkların verimleri melezleme veya seleksiyon yoluyla arttırılmaya çalışılmaktadır.

Koyunculuğun devamını sağlayan en önemli verimlerin başında üreme ve döl verimi gelir. Döl verimini artırmak için ikiz ya da üçüz doğurtma çalışmaları, bir yılda 2 kez veya iki yılda 3 kez yavru alınması çalışmaları yapılmaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra üstün verimli koyunlarda bir yılda birden çok yavru alınması için embrio transferi çalışmaları da yapılmaktadır.


Koyun eti tüketimi özellikle diğer hayvanların etlerine göre daha azdır. Ancak köy, kasaba gibi küçük yerleşim birimlerinde koyun eti tüketimi fazladır. Özellikle kurban bayramında kesilen kurbanların büyük bir kısmını koyunlar oluşturmaktadır. Kurban bayramında kesilen koyunlar yıllık koyun eti tüketimini önemli ölçüde artırmaktadır. Aynı şekilde adaklar da koyun eti tüketiminin önemli ölçüde artmasını sağlar.

Koyun sütünden elde edilen yağ, yoğurt ve peynir gibi süt ürünleri benzerlerine göre daha çok tercih edilmekte ve bu nedenle de koyunların büyük bir kısmı sağılmaktadır. İvesi ve sakız gibi yüksek süt verimli koyun ırklarımızın ıslah edilmesi, diğer ırkların da da süt verimini artırıcı melezleme çalışmaları yapılmalıdır.

Koyun derileri ülkemizde yeteri kadar değerlendirilememektedir. Mezbaha dışında bilinçsizce kesilen hayvanların derileri dikkatsizce yüzülerek yaralanmakta, yeterince tuzlanıp iyi korunamamakta ve işleme yerlerine zamanında ulaştırılamadığından işlerliğini kaybetmektedir. Koyun derilerinden en iyi şekilde yararlanabilmek için mezbahalarda kesim tercih edilmelidir. Ancak koyunlarda mezbaha dışı kesimin daha fazla yapılmaktadır.

Türkiye'deki koyun yapağıları ise yerli koyunların verim düşüklüğü sebebiyle kalın ve kaba özellikte yapağı olup, dokuma sanayiinde kullanılamamaktadırlar. Bu yapağılar ancak halı, kilim, yatak ve keçe imalatında kullanılmaktadır. Bu nedenle sanayide kullanılan ince yapağılar gibi ihraç edilememekte ve iyi fiyata satılamamaktadırlar. Yapağı kalitesini artırmak için başlatılan merinoslaştırma çalışmalarına yeniden hız kazandırılmalıdır.

Koyunlar yılda ortalama 600-700 kg gübre çıkarırlar. Koyundan elde edilen gübrelerin besin maddesi içeriği, sığır ve beygirden elde edilen gübrelere oranla daha yüksektir. Koyun gübresi bitki ve sebzelerde kullanılan toprak için en zengin kaynaktır. Özellikle bahçelerde ve parkların yeşillendirilmesinde çok fazla tercih edilir.

Hem çiftçi hem de ülke ekonomisini kalkındırmak için koyunculuğun yaygınlaştırılması gereklidir. Ama bakım ve beslenme koşullarının iyileştirilmesi, öte yandan koyunların saf yetiştirme ve melezleme yolu ile ıslah edilerek verimliliğin artırılması şarttır.


Öyleyse koyunculuğun doğal ve ekonomik koşulların gerektirdiği yönde gelişebilmesi için, mevcut yetiştirme tekniklerinin geliştirilmesi ve yetiştiricilerin yenilikleri bilmesi ve uygulaması gerekir.

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