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Hindi Yetiştiriciliği
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İpek Böceği
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İpek Böceği Yetiştiriciliği
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İpek Böceklerinin Bakımı ve Beslenmesi
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Kaz Yetiştiriciliği
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Keçi Irkları
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Keçi Yetiştiriciliği
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Keçilerin Bakımı ve Beslenmesi
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Koyun Yetiştiriciliği
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Koyunlarda Bakım ve Beslenme
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Ördek Yetiştiriciliği
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Tavuk Yetiştiriciliği
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Sığır Yetiştiriciliği
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Sığır Irkları
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Sığırların Bakım ve Beslenmesi
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Buzağı Bakımı ve Beslenmesi
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Sığır Barınakları
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Kültür Balıkçılığı
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Deniz Balıkçılığı
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Tatlı Su Balıkçılığı
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Kabuklu ve Yumuşakçalar
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Arı
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Arı Yetiştiriciliği
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Arıların Bakım ve Beslenmesi
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Arı Kovanları ve Özellikleri
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Manda Yetiştiriciliği
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Anadolu'da Simental Yetiştiriciliği
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Karlı Sığır Besiciliği Nasıl Olmalıdır
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Karlı Sığır Besiciliği Nasıl Olmalıdır
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120

SIĞIR BESİCİLİĞİ

Sığır besisi, bir sığırdan mümkün olan en kısa sürede, en fazla ve en kaliteli eti, en ekonomik biçimde üretme faaliyeti olarak tanımlanabilir. Beside amaç kısa sürede, daha az yemle daha fazla canlı ağırlık artışı sağlamaktır. 

1. SIĞIR BESİSİNİN AVANTAJLARI

Sığır besiciliği ahır ve ekipman olarak fazla bir yatırım gerektirmez. Yatırılan sermayenin devir hızı yüksek ve gelire dönüşümü hızlıdır.Diğer hayvancılık kollarına göre işçilik giderleri daha azdır. Besiye daha çok genç erkek hayvanlar alındığından, hastalık riski ve ölüm oranı azdır. Kesim ağırlığındaki bir sığır için her zaman pazar bulma imkânı mevcuttur. Diğer hayvancılık ve sanayi sektörlerine göre az bir yatırımla istihdam sağlamaktadır.

2. SIĞIR BESİCİLİĞİNİN GENEL İLKELERİ

A.Besi verimliliği hayvanın ırkı, yaşı, cinsiyeti, sağlığı ve görünüşüne bağlı olarak değişir.

B.Besiye alınacak hayvanlar, fiyatların düşük olduğu dönemlerde satın alınmalı, et fiyatlarının yüksek olduğu dönemlerde satılmalıdır.

C.Besiye alınan hayvanlarda iç ve dış parazitlere karşı mücadele ve özellikle şap gibi salgın hastalıklara karşı koruyucu aşılama zamanında yapılmalıdır.

D.Besiye alınan hayvanlar dengeli yem karmaları ile beslenmeli ve yem maliyeti düşürülmeye çalışılmalıdır.

E.Beside kârlılık hayvan ve yem materyalini en uygun biçimde kullanmakla artırılabilir.


3. HAYVAN MATERYALİ

 Beside hayvanın ırkı, yaşı, cinsiyeti, vücut yapısı, canlı ağırlık artış hızı besinin kârlılığını etkilemektedir.

 A. Irk: Canlı ağırlık artışı hayvanın kalıtsal yapısı ile ilgili olduğundan, besiye alınacak hayvanların ırkları besi sonunda amaçlanan ağırlığa ulaşmaya izin vermelidir.

 Yerli ırklarımızın canlı ağırlık artışı düşük olduğundan, bunlarla yapılan besicilik pek kârlı olmamaktadır. Ancak, kültür ırklarıyla melezlendiği zaman daha iyi sonuçlar alınmaktadır. Yerli ırklar günlük 600-700 g canlı ağırlık artışı sağlarken, kültür ırkı ya da melezlerinin günlük canlı ağırlık artışı ortalama 1100-1200 g olmaktadır.

 Ülkemizde besiye en uygun ırklar Simental, Siyah Alaca, Esmer gibi kültür ırkları ile bunların melezleridir.

 B.Yaş: Besi sığırlarında canlı ağırlık artış hızı yaşın ilerlemesine bağlı olarak azalır. 12 aylık yaşa kadar olan dönem canlı ağırlık artışının en çok olduğu dönemi oluşturmaktadır. Yaşın ilerlemesiyle yemden yararlanma azalmaktadır. Örneğin büyümekte olan genç sığırlarda 1 kg canlı ağırlık artışı için yaklaşık olarak 6-7 kg yem gerekirken, yaşlı hayvanlarda 1 kg canlı ağırlık artışı ancak 12-14 kg yem ile sağlanabilmektedir. Çünkü genç sığırlarda canlı ağırlık artışı daha çok kas ve kemik birikimi yaşlı sığırlarda yağ birikim şeklinde olmaktadır. Yağ birikimini sağlamak için ise kas ve kemik birikimine göre iki kat daha fazla enerjiye ve yeme ihtiyaç bulunmaktadır.

 C. Cinsiyet: Besi için erkek hayvanlar tercih edilmekteyse de bazen damızlık dışı kalan dişi sığırlar da besiye alınabilmektedir. Ancak dişi sığırların besi performansları düşük ve günlük canlı ağırlık artış hızları erkeklere göre daha az olmaktadır. Fizyolojik nedenlerle dişi sığırlar hiçbir zaman erkek sığırların ulaşmış olduğu canlı ağırlık artış hızını yakalayamazlar.

 D. Vücut Yapısı: Genellikle geniş ve uzun gövdeli, kısa boyunlu, büyük başlı, düz sırtlı ve uzun sağrılı hayvanlar besi için uygundur. Buna karşılık, hastalık dışındaki sebeplerden dolayı zayıf kalmış hayvanlar da besi için tercih edilebilir. Çünkü zayıflar, besililere göre daha fazla canlı ağırlık artışı sağladığı gibi, daha ucuza alınacaklarından ekonomik olmaktadır.

 E. Canlı Ağırlık Artış Hızı: Canlı ağırlık artış hızı yavaş olan besi sığırlarında tüketilen yemin büyük kısmı yaşama payı için kullanılır. Canlı ağırlık artışları hayvanlar 15 günde veya ayda bir defa tartılarak kontrol edilmelidir. Bu amaçla büyük kantarlar ya da ölçüm şeritleri kullanılabilir. Canlı ağırlık artış hızı ile karkas kalitesi arasında ilişki mevcuttur. Hızlı kilo alan hayvanlardan elde edilen karkasın yağ oranı, yavaş kilo alanlara oranla daha düşüktür. Ayrıca hızlı kilo alanlarda but ve bel kasları gibi değerli et kısımları daha fazla olmaktadır.



 4. BESİ YÖNTEMLERİ


Besi yöntemleri besinin süresine, besleme programına ve barınaklara göre üç kısımda incelenir.

 A. BESİ SÜRESİ

 Sürelerine göre besi kısa, orta ve uzun süreli olarak üçe ayrılır. Kısa süreli besi 3-4 ay, orta süreli besi 4-6 ay, uzun süreli besi ise 6-12 ay sürdürülür. Kısa süreli beside pembe renkli, yumuşak ve lezzetli etler üretilirken, orta süreli beside bonfile, pirzola ve rosto gibi değerli etler elde edilir. Uzun süreli beside elde edilen etler ise lezzetli, gevrek, sulu ve yağ oranı uygundur. Türkiye’de yapılan besiciliğin çoğu orta süreli besi şeklindedir. 

Kısa süreli besiye kemik gelişimini tamamlamış, ancak besisini almamış zayıf yapılı sığırlar alınırken, orta süreli besiye iyi kondisyonlu, büyüme çağında olan erkek dana ve dişi düveler alınırlar. Uzun süreli besiye ise kondisyonu düşük, ancak sağlıklı hayvanlar alınırlar.

 B. BESLEME PROGRAMI

 Besleme programına göre besi yoğun besleme ve kısıtlı besleme olmak üzere ikiye ayrılır. 

 B.1. Yoğun (Entansif) Besleme: Eğer hızlı bir canlı ağırlık artışı isteniyorsa yoğun besleme uygulanır. Bu programda yüksek oranda kesif yem verilmelidir. Yoğun besleme mera şartlarının uygun olmadığı, hızlı canlı ağırlık artışının istendiği durumlarda yapılır. Amaç besiye alınan sığırların bir an önce kesim olgunluğuna getirilmesidir.

Yoğun besleme programına alınmış besi sığırları 6 aylık yaştan itibaren günlük ortalama 1100-1200 g kadar canlı ağırlık artışı sağlayabilirler. Verilecek rasyon istenen canlı ağırlık hızına göre düzenlenmelidir. En yüksek canlı ağırlık artışı kesif yem kullanımının en fazla olduğu durumlarda alınır. Buna göre rasyonda enerjice zengin, protein ve diğer besin maddelerince dengeli olarak hazırlanmış besi yemleri kesif yem olarak tercih edilebilir. Rasyonun kuru madde esasına göre % 85’i kesif yemlerden oluşturulabilir. Geri kalan % 15’lik kısım ise özellikle buğdaygil türü bitkilere ait kaba yemlerden sağlanmalıdır. Kaba yem olarak başta mısır silajı olmak üzere çeşitli silajlar kullanılabilir. Besi sığırlarına canlı ağırlıklarının % 2-2.5’ine kadar kesif yem verilebilir. Bunun yanı sıra günlük 5-7 kg mısır silajı, 1-2 kg saman, 5-8 kg pancar posası yedirilebilir. Kesif yem olarak besi sığırlarına besi yemlerinin yanı sıra özellikle besi döneminin sonlarına doğru tahıl ve arpa kırmalarının ilave olarak verilmesi doğru bir uygulamadır. Hayvanların önünde daima temiz su bulunmalıdır. Bu uygulama yem tüketiminin artmasına ve dolayısıyla canlı ağırlık artışının daha da hızlanmasına katkı sağlar. Yoğun beside şu hususlara dikkat edilmelidir. 

--- Besiye alınacak sığırlar ırk, yaş, canlı ağırlık, beden yapısı ve orijinleri dikkate alınarak seçilmelidir. 

--- Besiye başlanmadan hayvanlar iç ve dış parazitlere karşı ilaçlanmalı, şap ve sığır vebası aşıları yapılmalıdır. 

--- Hayvanlar enerji ve protein ihtiyaçlarına göre dengeli bir rasyonla beslenmeli, yemleme tartılarak yapılmalıdır.

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