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Arı
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Manda Yetiştiriciliği
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Manda Yetiştiriciliği
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106

Süt, et ve çeki hayvanı olarak dünyada önemli bir ekonomik etkinliğe sahip olan manda; Güneydoğu Asya ülkelerinde, Güney Amerika ülkelerinde, Kuzey Afrika'da, Fransa dışındaki bütün Akdeniz ülkelerinde, Balkan ülkeleri ile bazı Orta Avrupa ülkelerinde ve Avustralya'da yaygın bir şekilde yetiştirilmektedir.

Manda, Türkiye’nin hemen hemen her bölgesinde yetiştirilebilir. Doğal yaşama uyumlu ve hastalıklara karşı dayanıklı bir hayvandır. Mandalar, sığırların beslenemediği eğimli, yetersiz kaba yem alanlarında yaşamlarını sürdürebilme, kalitesiz yemleri değerlendirerek kaliteli ete dönüştürebilme özelliğine sahip hayvanlardır. Ancak mandanın derisi güneşe karşı hassastır. Bu nedenle güneş tepedeyken çamurla sıvanması ya da suya girmeleri gerekir. Manda yetiştiriciliği için sulak alan ya da çamurlu göller şart değildir. Modern yetiştiricilikte bu ihtiyaçlar suni olarak sağlanabilmektedir. Dolayısıyla çok kurak iklimlerde, yapay bir göl ya da duş sistemi yapıldığı takdirde manda yetiştiriciliği yapmak mümkündür.


Ülkemiz için manda yetiştiriciliği eti ve sütü yönünden önemlidir. Manda sütü, kaymak, yoğurt, peynir, tereyağı ve dondurma; eti ise özellikle sucuk üretiminde kullanılır. Sütü, %10 yağ oranı ve lezzetiyle öncelikli olarak tercih edilmektedir. İnek sütünden iki kat daha yağlı, daha beyazdır ve tazeliğini daha uzun süre korur. Kolesterol içeriği düşük, protein ve mineral  açısından zengindir. 

Manda sütünden lüle kaymağı yapılır. Lüle kaymağı özellikle Afyon ili ve manda yetiştirilen bazı illerimizde sadece manda sütünden yapılan orjinal bir süt ürünüdür. Manda sütünün kaynatılıp soğutulması ile elde edilen kaymak kesilerek lüle şekli verilir. İtalya'da üretilen meşhur Mozarella peyniri de sadece hakiki manda sütü ile üretilmektedir.

Hindistan, Pakistan ve Filipinler gibi Asya ülkelerinde toprağı işlemek ve yük taşımak için mandanın gücünden yararlanılır. Özellikle Asya ülkelerinde pirinç tarlalarına traktör giremediğinden dolayı mandanın gücünden faydalanılmaktadır. Ayrıca manda derisi kaliteli kösele yapımında kullanılmaktadır.

Manda, iri yapısı ve yemi iyi değerlendirmesi yönüyle et üretimine de elverişli bir hayvandır. Eti; taze ya da sucuk, pastırma, döner ve salam gibi ürünlerde kullanılır. Sığr etine göre daha az yağlıdır ve daha az kolesterol içerir. Protein ve mineral açısından zengin bir yapıya sahiptir. Ayrıca ülkemizde, fermantasyon süresini kısaltması ve kaliteyi arttırması bakımından sucuk etinde Türk Gıda Kodeksi'nin ve TSE'nin izin verdiği oranda (%10) manda eti kullanılmaktadır.

Ülkemizde yetiştirilen mandaların kökeni, ırmak mandalarının alt grubu olan Akdeniz mandalarından gelmekte olup Anadolu mandası olarak bilinmektedir. Manda yetiştiriciliği Türkiye'de genellikle Diyarbakır, Sivas, Muş, Çorum, Amasya, Sinop, Samsun, Afyon ve Balıkesir illerinde yoğun olarak yapılmaktadır.

Türkiye'de mandacılık; yanlış uygulamalar, yetersiz destek ve verimsiz üretim sonucunda yok olma tehdidiyle karşı karşıya gelmiş fakat günümüzdeki girişimler, devlet desteği, AB fonları ve üniversitelerin etkin çalışmaları ile manda popülasyonu yeniden artmaya başlamıştır. Manda yetiştiriciliğini geliştirmek ve yok olmak üzere olan ırkları korumak için Tarım Bakanlığı'na bağlı TAGEM koordinatörlüğünde çalışmalar yapılmakta, melezleme ve ıslah çalışmaları ile verimlerinin daha da arttırılması amaçlanmakta, yetiştiricilere ekonomik destek sağlanmaktadır.

MANDA

Anavatanı Hindistan ve Güney Asya olan manda, boynuzlugiller familyasının sığırlar alt familyasına ait olup, genellikle evcil bir türdür. Süt, et ve çeki hayvanı olarak bilinen mandanın; Türkiye'de dombay, camız, camış ve kömüş gibi değişik isimleri vardır. Yavrularına malak adı verilmektedir. Mandanın beden yapısı kaba görünüşlü, sağlamdır. Bacakları ve ayakları kuvvetli olup, ayakları sığırdan daha büyük ve geniştir. Bu özeliği mandaya hem suda hem de bataklıkta kolay hareket edebilme ve yüzme olanağı sağlar. Hem erkek hem de dişilerinde bulunan boynuzlarının üzeri düz ya da kalın enine çizgilidir. Boynuzlar ırklara göre değişik şekillerde ve aşağı, yukarı ve geriye yöneldiği gibi, uçları içe doğru kıvrık da olabilir. Boynuzlarındaki bu özellikler manda ırklarının ayırt edilmesinde önemli bir göstergedir.

Mandalarda deri rengi gri ve kahverengiden siyaha kadar, kıl örtüsü ise kızıl kahverengiden siyaha kadar değişir. Doğumdan sonra kızıl kahverengiye dönen kıl örtüsü daha sonra dökülerek, daha seyrek olan koyu gri ya da siyah renge dönüşür.

Mandanın derisi çok sert ve kalındır. Kıl örtüsü ve deri altı ter bezleri sığır derisine göre %10 daha az olduğundan, yazın sıcak aylarında beden ısısını kendiliğinden ayarlayamaz ve bu da metabolizmalarının bozulmasına sebep olur. Bu nedenle mandalar vücut ısılarını ayarlayabilmek, serinlemek ve aynı zamanda sineklerden kurtulmak için günde birkaç kez suda yüzer, bataklık ya da çamura girerler.

Mandalar genel olarak Bataklık mandaları ve Irmak mandaları olarak iki gruba ayrılır. Bataklık mandaları yük hayvanı olarak kullanılırken, Irmak mandaları ise eti ve sütü için yetiştirilir. En önemli  manda ırkları; Akdeniz mandası, Kundi, Surti, Mehsana, Murrah, Nili-Ravi, Pandharpuri, Jaffarabadi, Toda, Malaii mandası, Baladi ve Saidi olarak bilinmektedir. 

Bataklık mandaları: Bataklık mandaları; Çin, Filipinler, Endonezya ve Vietnam gibi Asya ülkelerinde yetiştirilmektedir. Daha sonra Bazı Güney Amerika ülkelerine ve Avustralya'nın kuzey bölgelerine ihraç edilmiştir. Derileri açık kahve , açık gri veya alaca renktedir. Boynuzları hem kalın hem de oldukça uzundur. Bataklık mandaları adından da anlaşılacağı üzere daha çok bataklık ve çamurlu arazilerde yaşar. Süt verimi düşük olan bu mandalar, et tipi hayvan olarak etinden ve iş gücünden yararlanılmak üzere yetiştirilirler. Pirinç tarlalarını sürmek için kullanılan bu hayvanlar yaşlanınca kesilirler.

Irmak mandaları: Hindistan başta olmak üzere; Asya, Güney Amerika, Kuzey Afrika, Güneydoğu Avrupa ve Orta Doğu ülkelerinde genellikle sütü için yaygın olarak yetiştirilen mandalardır. Irmak mandalarını bataklık mandalarından ayıran en önemli özellik de süt verimlerinin yüksek olmasıdır. Derilerinin rengi genellikle siyah ya da koyu kahvedir. Meme yapıları iyi gelişmiştir. Yapılan ıslah ve seleksiyon çalışmalarıyla yüksek verim kabiliyetine ulaşmışlardır.

Akdeniz mandası: Akdeniz mandaları; Afganistan, İran, Irak, Azerbaycan, Türkiye, Mısır, İtalya, Bulgaristan, Yunanistan, Romanya, Macaristan ve Brezilya'da yetiştirilmektedir. Bu mandaların fiziksel özellikleri ve verim özellikleri, yetiştirildikleri ülkenin coğrafyasına, bakım ve beslenmesine göre değişmektedir. Derisi siyah, boynuzları kısa, yukarıdan aşağıya ve sonra geriye yönelmiş şekildedir.

Kundi: İndus nehri boyunca uzanan bölgelerde sütü için yetiştirilmektedir. Derileri genellikle siyah ve kahverengi olan çok iri bir manda soyudur. Boynuzları aşırı kıvrıktır. Alnında beyaz lekeler, gözlerinde ise beyaz şeritler görülür.

Surti: Hindistan'da yetiştirilen bir manda soyudur. Vücut yapıları çok düzgündür. Derisi gri ve kahverengi, boynuzları orta uzunluktadır. Surti mandalarının ortak fiziksel özelliği, göğüslerinin ön kısımlarında iki uzun beyaz çizgi olmasıdır.

Mehsana: Surti ve Murrah mandalarının melezlenmesi sonucu elde edilen, Pakistan ve Hindistan'da yetiştirilen manda soyudur. Vücut yapıları çok düzgündür. Derileri genellikle siyah olmakla birlikte, açık renkli olanlarına da rastlanmaktadır. Boynuz

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